Breakdown in Human-machine interaction: the error is the clue

TitleBreakdown in Human-machine interaction: the error is the clue
Publication TypeConference Paper
Year of Publication2003
AuthorsMartinovski, B., and D. R. Traum
Conference NameISCA tutorial and research workshop on Error handling in dialogue systems
Date PublishedAugust 2003

This paper focuses not on the detection and correction of specific errors in the interaction between machines and humans, but rather cases of massive deviation from the user's conversational expectations and desires. This can be the result of too many or too unusual errors, but also from dialogue strategies designed to minimize error, which make the interaction unnatural in other ways. We study causes of irritation such as over-fragmentation, over-clarity, over coordination, over-directedness, and repetitiveness of verbal action, syntax, and intonation. Human reactions to these irritating features typically appear in the following order: tiredness, tolerance, anger, confusion, irony, humor, exhaustion, uncertainty, lack of desire to communicate. The studied features of human expressions of irritation in nonface-to-face interaction are:intonation, emphatic speech, elliptic speech, speed of speech, extra-linguistic signs, speed of verbal action, and overlap.